The Teaching of Orthic Shorthand, Part 2

Rules for reporting, for the use of teaching and students of Orthographic shorthand (Callendar's system)

The Teaching of Orthic Shorthand, Part 2

Rules for reporting, for the use of teachers and students of Orthographic shorthand (Callendar’s system)

by W. Stevens, secretary to the Cambridge Shorthand Society. 1896.

Graciously Transcribed by Jacob Moena

This document was transcribed by Jacob Moena in September 2022. He has made available:

Accompanying Readings

1. The object of this second Manual

The object of this second manual on the teaching of Orthic Shorthand is to supply fuller explanations, and illustrations, of the methods of abbreviation.

2. “Reporting Style” is the same methods of abbreviation, extended

The “Reporting Style” of Orthic is in no way essentially different from the “Corresponding Style.”

There is little new to learn, and nothing to unlearn. It is simply the same methods of abbreviation as given in the Teacher’s Manual, part 1, extended.

3. Abbreviations are no mere arbitraries

Impress, therefore, upon the students that the abbreviations are no mere arbitraries, but are logical conclusions based upon what has gone before.

4. The alphabet

The only additional character is b - the upright stroke of the longhand character - which may be substituted for , see the combination mb.

This alternative character should only be used medially; as

  • = bible,
  • probably:

equals but. Thus .

5. -ws final extended to “was”

On page 6, paragraph 7, of the Teacher’s Manual, and on page 12 of the Author’s Manual, it has been shown that “ws” final is written with a loop, thus .

By an extension of this principle, we may use the “ws” loop for the word was, and join it to the preceding word: similarly to “t’was” in longhand: thus

  • = I was;
  • = it was;
  • that was;
  • nothing was;
  • if it was.

6. Supra Linear

In the termination “vowel ve”, we have the rule laid down, that the omission of this termination may be indicated by a dot, or, if inflected, by the inflection written above the last letter; this was shown to be a logical consequence.

Now this dot, representing the “vowel ve” termination, may very safely be used to indicate the verb ‘have’: as

  • I have. Compare I’ve in longhand.
  • do have,
  • will have.

N.B. This dot cannot clash with “be”. Why? Because this word dot is written midway between words; thus, “all that can be said we have said”, .

Naturally following this suggestion, we can deal with “having” in the same way: as not having, cp. not being.

7. Extension of this rule to imply “have”

This supra linear ve dot may be omitted altogether, and a following word written in the place of it, to indicate the verb “have” understood. Thus

  • to have been,
  • could have been,
  • he might have had.

8. Extended to the suffix -ow

This V Mode may be extended to the suffix “ow”; thus

  • narrower,
  • borrow,
  • borrowing,
  • sorrow,
  • sorrowful.

See Section 32.

9. Implied th- extended to “they”

As given in the manual, initial “th” is omitted and the rest of the word written above the line.

Extend this principle, and, by placing the verb above the line, understand the word they, omitted. Thus

  • I think they might have been , cp. he might have been .

10. Sub linear writing

de-, di-, dis-

As per the Author’s Manual, the prefixes de, di, and dis may be omitted, and the rest of the word written below the line. Thus

  • declare,
  • digress,
  • disciple,
  • descend,
  • indisputable.


Further, when a word begins with “wh”, the “wh” may be omitted, and the rest of the word written below the line. Thus

  • who,
  • what, who was.

11. Extension of this rule to “which”

The word “which” is so frequently in use, that we may safely indicate the omission of the word “which” by writing the following word below the line, as

  • did you say which it was ,
  • which might have been .

Compare the following positions:

  1. they might have been.
  2. might have been.
  3. which might have been.

12. Intersections

For polysyllabic terminations

Many letters in the Orthic alphabet readily intersect. This method may be used to indicate the omission of one or two syllables; and it is especially adapted to the expression of polysyllabic terminations; e.g.

  • g for -logical,
  • a for -diate or -tiate,
  • etc.

13. Outline cutting outline

The termination ing cutting the last part of a word, signifies the omission of “ish”; thus,

  • = flourishing,
  • = polishing,
  • = varnishing.

14. The letters A and O intersected

A for -ate, -ade, etc.

The vowel a will generally intersect another letter, and may be used to express the terminations

  • tiate,
  • diate,
  • ate, and
  • ade.


  • immediate, or .
  • graduate,
  • initiate,
  • fade.

Inflections of the terminations ate and ade will of course be indicated by the last letter of the inflection; thus

  • graduated,
  • actuated.

O for -ote, -ode

Similarly, the vowel o , may be used to express

  • ote and
  • ode;


  • remote,
  • antidote, or .

15. P for -ship

P , is already given in the Manual and Supplement, when intersecting, as equivalent for the termination ‘ship’, thus

  • marksmanship,
  • worship,
  • fellowship,
  • secretaryship.

16. G for -logue, -logical

G , readily intersects, and may be used for the terminations logue and logical, e.g.

  • catalogue,
  • prologue,
  • zoological,
  • phrenological.

17. S for -ious, -ceous

S , when intersecting the last letter can conveniently stand for any polysyllabic word ending in ious, ceous, as

  • herbaceous,
  • extraneous,
  • expeditious,
  • etc.

18. Finals

In abbreviating words ending in

  • ent use t,
  • ence use ce,
  • ency use cy,
  • graph use ph,
  • ism use m,
  • wise use se.


  • subvent,
  • evidence,
  • expediency,
  • telegraph,
  • criticism,
  • otherwise.

19. Y final

Joined for -ty, -ary, -ory

Y, , final, when joined to a preceding letter, stands for the terminations ty, ary, or ory. Thus,

  • duty,
  • beauty,
  • lusty,
  • canary,
  • ordinary,
  • story,
  • conservatory.

Raised for -ity

When written above the last letter, and disjoined, it is the equivalent for “ity”, e.g.

  • pity,
  • sincerity.

Lowered for -ly

When written below the last letter it stands for “ly”, as

  • truly,
  • verily,
  • daily.

20. OU for -ount, -ound

Ou, , stands for the terminations ount or ound. Thus,

  • count,
  • county,
  • profound,
  • astounding.

21. i for -ite, -ide

On the principle that q.e. equals quite, and w.r.e. equals write, , i, will stand for the terminations “ite” or “ide”. E.g.

  • bite,
  • exquisite,
  • confide,
  • deride, etc.

22. UN for -ion, -ution, -usion

By the Manual u.n. is equivalent for “ion”; where, then, the letter ‘u’ precedes ‘tion’ or ‘sion’, the ‘t’ may be slurred, and the ‘u’ lengthened to stand for “ution”, or “usion”. Thus

  • diminution,
  • solution,
  • confusion,
  • collusion.

23. -um, -ium drop the vowels

The termination “um” and “ium” which occur chiefly in Latin words, may be abbreviated by omitting the ‘u’ and ‘iu’. Ium can be distinguished from ‘um’, when necessary, by dotting the “m”. Thus

  • laudanum,
  • sodium.

24. General Abbreviations

When it is desired to abbreviate words written on the line, and to which the foregoing rules do not apply, it is usually sufficient to write the first part of the word and the termination: to follow the usual longhand contraction, as, st for first, ult for ultimo, etc. The great secret is to preserve the outline of the most important part of the word, cp. mtg for mortgage.

c for ‘cause’

In the Manual B.E.C. equals because, therefore C. equals ‘cause’, and may be used for this word.


Initial a - in words beginning with anti, amphi, etc. - may be omitted altogether.


Y , detached and below, has been given for the termination ‘ly’. If it is found more convenient, in rapid writing, to write the ‘ly’, instead of lifting the pen, it may be done, where it is not likely to be misread. Thus, for probably, for fully, etc.


In the common word “right”, the Manual authorises the ‘t’ to be joined to the ‘r’, instead of being written below, as by the rule. This may also be done in such words as taught , daughter, fraught, laughter, etc.


stands for ‘able’, therefore or can be taken for the termination ble, as table, liable, terrible, ignoble, probable, etc.


ea is the recognised contraction for ‘each’, therefore equals teach, preach, reaches, preacher.


ay equals ‘any’, therefore is accompany, and many.


is according, therefore is accord, and by similar reasoning record, recording, etc.


On page 19 of the Manual Supplement equals tomorrow; to this we add equals follow, the ‘r’ and the ‘l’ respectively being slurred. But for other words, such as narrow, borrow, sorrow, it is better to write , , respectively. See Section 8.


U, , is the authorised contraction for “under”, whether as a word, prefix, or a part of a word, e.g. under, understand, blunder, thunder.

Extend this rule to the prefixes ‘unde’ and ‘undi’. Thus, undetermined, undiminishing.


is the equivalent for first, and for best, for whilst.


disjoined, stands for the termination cerning, as concerning, discerning.


In reporting the aspirate [sound represented by the letter ‘h’] may invariably be omitted.


In the Manual an elementary rule is given, in all inflections of y retain the y; where the diphthong ay is inflected, it is not necessary to observe this rule, e.g. paid can be written or , laid, etc. The latter form being the easier in rapid writing.


In the Supplement to the Manual, on page 19, the author says, “there can be no doubt but that the device of shading or thickening a character is not suited for general use.”

Some writers, however, are of opinion that it may be used occasionally, with advantage, in reporting.

The necessary distinction between strokes cannot be accomplished by many individuals; and in rapid reporting the distinction of the strokes, heavy and light, is scarcely apparent.

Moreover the joining of a thin to a thick outline, and vice-versa, is a great difficulty.

The author restricts the use of this device to the adding of the characters ‘l’ and ‘r’; but it appears to me, that it is better, if adopted by any writer, to restrict its use to single words, and terminations standing alone and always written downwards.

We therefore adduce [offer as an example] this rule, a thickened right hand stroke, i.e. a character written from left to right, adds ‘r’, either before or after, e.g. is the equivalent for fr from, rk for work, yr your, are, etc.

Again, a thickened left hand stroke, adds ‘l’, as glad, people.


I will close these reporting rules and hints by a suggestion for very advanced writers: I will call it line intersection, that is, outline cutting ruled line of writing. This method of abbreviation should only be employed by those who habitually use ruled paper for writing upon.

When the outline , i, cuts the ruled line initially it adds the letter “n”, e.g. in, in the, in the case of.

With other letters cutting the ruled line of writing, the prefixes ‘an’, ‘en’, or ‘in’ are indicated. Thus, anvil, endure, infirm, etc.


The sole object of the foregoing pages is to give the student of Orthic hints as to the logical sequence of reporting abbreviations. Wherever it is easier to write a word in any other way, full or otherwise, write it so, for it will be quicker for you. You must ‘think’ in shorthand, if I may so say, before you can become absolutely proficient, be able to ‘see’ the outline of every word directly it is spoken and use your context judiciously.

W. Stevens
Secretary to the Cambridge Shorthand Society
68, High Street
N. W.

The Lord’s Prayer

Comparison between Pitman’s, The Oxford, Everett’s, Sloan Duployan, and Orthic Shorthand.

Pitman’s System

The Oxford


Sloan Duployan


Mr Gladstone at Liverpool


I have listened, My Lord Mayor, with the warmest sympathy to the speeches of those who have gone before me, and I desire to associate myself with them in the closest manner, it is true, Ladies and Gentlemen, that I have lived a long political life, and that I have borne high, and responsible office; but it is not in regard to either of these circumstances that I now come before you, and I make no claim to authority in any shape. I come here as a loyal subject of her Majesty and especially as having been admitted, through the kindness of the Local Authority, to call myself your fellow townsman, as the possessor of the freedom of Liverpool. It has been well said that we stand today upon a higher platform than the platform of party. There is no man here whatever his opinions on ordinary politics may be, who will scruple to own or appear as if he were ashamed of them; but the national platform on which we stand gives a higher claim and greater authority to these sentiments, which, as we believe, are universally entertained from one end of the country to the other. And, my Lord Mayor, I will say for myself that, as on this occasion it is a duty to renounce all Party sympathy and party recollections, so it is a duty most easy to perform. I, for my part, entertain not only a lively hope, but a strong belief, that when in the course of time we are made more largely acquainted with the inter-relations of Governments in the transactions of the last two years, we shall find that the present deplorable situation, to whomsoever it may be due, is not due either to the act of defaults of the Government of the great country. Now my Lord Mayor, I come to the resolution which I have undertaken to move. There are certain subjects which I should wish, if I may, to deal with. There are most important distinctions to be drawn in this matter, especially on the ground that the sufferers under the present misrule, and under the horribly accumulated outrages of the last two years, the sufferers under this misrule and these outrages are our fellow Christians; and permit me to say seconding that which has been said already, we do not prosecute the cause we have in hand upon the ground that they are our fellow Christians. This is no Crusade against Mohammedanism Nay more, I will say it is no declaration of universal condemnation of the Mohammedans and the Turkish Empire. On the contrary, amidst the dismal and heartrending reports one of the rare touches of relief has been that we have seen that, in spite of the perpetration of massacre by the agents of the Government, yet there have been good, and generous Mohammedans who have resisted these misdeeds to the uttermost of their power and who have established for themselves a claim to our sympathy and admiration.


The above fully reported: